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USC Shoah Foundation Institute Thesaurus
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Italia 1918 (11 novembre) - 1939 (31 agosto)   Cerca


Definition: The 1919 Treaty of St.-Germain gives Italy Trentino, Trieste, and Istria, yet falls short of the promises made to Italy in the Treaty of London. In 1921, Mussolini transforms his Fascist movement into a Fascist Party. After the March on Rome (October 28, 1922), Mussolini quickly consolidates dictatorial powers. Fiume falls to Italy in 1924. The Lateran Treaty of February 11, 1929 recognizes Vatican City as an independent sovereign state. For the first ten years of the Fascist regime, the civil and religious rights of the Jewish minority are respected, and Mussolini condemns racism and antisemitism. With Hitler's rise to power in Germany, Mussolini's rhetoric on Jews takes an ambivalent turn. However, there is no change in the legal status of Jews, and Mussolini stays on friendly terms with Zionists. Italy invades Ethiopia in October 1935. In September 1936, Mussolini launches an antisemitic press campaign. In a November 1, 1936 speech in Milan, Mussolini announces the "Berlin-Rome Axis," sealing the major alliance of World War II. Racial laws are issued in fall 1938. Italy occupies Albania in April 1939. (en-US)


Johnston, Bernard, ed. Colliers Encyclopedia: With Bibliography and Index. New York: Collier's, 1995. Vol. 13, pp. 399

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