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USC Shoah Foundation Institute Thesaurus
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Francia 1940 (10 maggio) - 1944 (25 agosto)   Cerca


Definition: Germany invades France on May 10, 1940 and the country signs an armistice with Germany on June 22. Axis forces occupy France from June 1940 until August 1944. Germany divides France into two regions, an occupied zone under German rule, and the Vichy region under collaborationist French rule. Marshal Philippe Pétain, given power by the National Assembly, heads the Vichy regime. This government stresses nationalistic policies, working to reduce the influence of outsiders such as Jews and other refugees. Axis forces occupy the Vichy zone beginning in early November 1942. Approximately 350,000 Jews live in France in 1940. The German invasion initiates widespread persecution of these Jews in the occupied and Vichy zones. The Vichy regime institutes the Statut des Juifs (Jewish Law) in October 1940 and controls the Jewish population through the establishment of the Union Générale des Israélites de France (General Union of Jews of France). Antisemitism becomes an official part of the Vichy regime. Deportations of Jews begin in the summer of 1942 and last until the summer of 1944. Although Jews are said to be going to work camps, they are actually sent to Auschwitz. The deportations provoke some opposition to the Vichy government. In 1944, Jews establish the Conseil Représentatif des Juifs de France (Representative Council of French Jewry) to coordinate resistance. When the Allies land in Normandy June 6, 1944, the Axis occupation of France officially ends. Paris is liberated August 25. General Charles de Gaulle and the Free French establish a Provisional government. (en-US)


Dear, I.C.B., ed. The Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford and New York : Oxford Univerisity Press, 1995. 391-392, 396-398

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