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USC Shoah Foundation Institute Thesaurus
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Italia 1933 (30 gennaio) - 1939 (31 agosto)   Cerca


Definition: From 1933 until 1936, Mussolini's efforts to please both Nazi Germany and the western nations produce an ambivalent attitude toward Jews in Italy. Mussolini displays sympathy towards Jews at the same time that he promotes antisemitic measures and camaraderie with Hitler's Germany. This paradox manifests itself in the coexistence of anti-Zionist publications and Italian mobilization (July 1934) to protect Austria from German invasion. Anti-Zionism ultimately develops into an attack on all Jews who, the fascists argue, put Judaism before fascism. Antisemitism increases after the Spanish Civil War when Italy becomes closely tied to Germany. Mussolini launches an antisemitic press campaign in 1936. This culminates in anti-Jewish discrimination and persecution. In a November 1, 1936 speech in Milan, Mussolini announces the "Berlin-Rome Axis." Racial laws issued in 1938 further reflect Mussolini's commitment to the Axis. (en-US)


Zuccotti, Susan. The Italians and the Holocaust: Persecution, Rescue, Survival. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996. p. 30-51

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