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USC Shoah Foundation Institute Thesaurus
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Europa 1943 (3 febbraio) - 1945 (7 maggio)   Cerca


Definition: After the German surrender at Stalingrad (February 2, 1943) the Soviets continue to advance through the Ukraine. The western Allies and the USSR differ over how to treat Poland and other European states once they drive the Germans out. Hitler continues to strengthen his forces in western Europe at the expense of those on the Eastern front. This will contribute to ultimate German defeat. In Italy, Mussolini resigns and is subsequently arrested on July 25, 1943. Italy's new government, headed by Marshal Pietro Badoglio, secretly negotiates with the Allies while still under German occupation. On January 4, 1944, Soviet troops begin advancing westward through prewar Polish territory. After the Allies defeat German troops in the Battle of Monte Cassino, the city falls on May 18, 1944. The Allies enter and liberate Rome on June 5, 1944, but German occupation of the north and center of the country prevents Italy's complete liberation until the spring of 1945. On June 6, D-Day, 156,000 Allied soldiers land on the beaches of Normandy in an attempt to liberate France. German forces surrender in Paris and the Allies liberate the city on August 25, 1944. Still hoping to drive the Allies back, Hitler's offensive on the Western Front begins December 16, 1944. The Battle of the Bulge in the Ardennes effectively holds off the Allied advance for a few weeks. However, between January 8-16, 1945, German troops are forced to withdraw. Soviet troops capture Warsaw on January 17, 1945. With Hitler concentrating his forces in Budapest, the Soviets continue their advance through Poland for two more weeks. Soviet troops then take Budapest on February 13, 1945. Between February 13 and April 17, Allied fire-bombing reduces the German city of Dresden to rubble. On April 16, the Soviets begin their final attack on Berlin as the Americans enter Nuremberg. Two weeks later (April 30), with Soviet troops less than a half mile from his bunker, Hitler commits suicide. German troops in Italy surrender on May 2. The war officially ends when, on May 8, 1945, Germany signs the unconditional surrender set forth by the Allies. (en-US)


Encyclopaedia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, and general literature. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1995. Vol. 29, p. 1009-1021

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